Improving educational achievement outcomes, engaging students and teachers through

digital content and providing access for inclusive and quality education for all


Impact 1

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The government of Kenya Digital Literacy Programme
DLP Pilot Content Delivery Report
Theory of Change


Impact is the “true north” that guides our model through Challenges, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Outcomes, and Impact.ImpactWe measure Impact through:

  • Utilization of content by students & teachers: measures access to materials
  • Exam scores: measures student achievement, literacy in particular, relative to national standards
  • Digital Essay Competition metrics – Student Essays, Schools, Teachers, Return Schools, Judges’ Marks: measures of participation, performance, scale
  • Qualitative feedback: captures intangibles such as creativity, pride, joy

These measures help us define in quantitative and qualitative terms how we are driving change, where we are succeeding or failing, and patterns from which we can learn.ChallengesThe main challenges eKitabu addresses are:

  • Low literacy levels
  • Access to and cost of textbooks and reading materials
  • Teacher capacity and ownership
  • Low matriculation rates from primary to secondary level
  • Computing devices, including smartphones, entering schools and communities
  • Complex psychosocial environment: hopelessness, turmoil, trauma, isolation
  • UN SDG #4: Quality Education

In the complex environment of a school, we recognize there are many factors beyond our control including the conditions children and teachers confront in their lives outside the school. In the face of this reality we focus above all on delivering educational content—textbooks and reading materials—as the single most powerful input to produce positive change.InputsSchools are where we engage. Teachers, head teachers, and students are the people primarily involved in our solution.The Inputs we bring are:

  • Ebooks: course books and supplementary materials, including teachers’ guides, across all subjects in the local curriculum, approved by the Ministry of Education, and in a variety of local and international languages
  • Technology: app & e-library built on open standards, accessible on any computing device, and usable offline, with content security for publishers’ materials to prevent piracy and commercial redistribution
  • Devices: frequently we partner with device manufacturers or implementers of ICT for education programs to bring computers and content to schools; we also work with schools, libraries, and ICT centers that have devices already
  • Measurement: we involve every school where we engage in data collection to ascertain the facts of their environment including ICT capabilities; we also help them join the Digital Essay Competition which builds the relationship with the individual school, builds community across schools, and yields large volumes of annual data for longitudinal study
  • Organizational assets: we bring skills in content delivery and teacher training for ICT integration in the classroom; experience from teamwork with over 600 schools over the past four years; and a reputation for reliable, thorough delivery reinforced by growing local and international brand recognition

Other Inputs include many from partners and sponsors, including Ministry of Education feedback, and sometimes Internet connectivity for schools from mobile network operators or satellite broadband providers with whom we work, for example in DFID’s Girls Education Challenge project iMlango that brings satellite Internet connectivity to over 200 schools in marginalized arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya.ProcessOur Process has two major components that can be performed together or at separate times: delivery of ebooks and participation in the Digital Essay Competition. In some cases, schools participate first in the Digital Essay Competition which is free, open to all, and follows an annual cycle designed to fit school terms. In other cases, we deliver ebooks first and then involve the school in the Digital Essay Competition. Either way the school becomes a member of our community to interact, share data, and learn.Each major component of the Process has several activity tracks or sub-processes:Ebook Delivery

  • Booklist generation
  • Installation
  • Teacher training
  • Measurement

Digital Essay Competition

  • Ministry of Education approval
  • Outreach
  • Regional school events
  • Student submissions
  • Judging
  • Prizegiving
  • Measurement

OutputsOutputs are the main data, deliverables, and observable phenomena that result from the Process:

  • Books delivered
  • Utilization rates of content and devices
  • School, student, and teacher contacts
  • School profile data and national exam scores
  • Student essay and art submissions
  • Essay marks
  • Finalists & winners
  • Prizes awarded to students, teachers, and schools
  • Ministry of Education endorsement
  • Partner engagement, support & sponsorship
  • Annual comprehensive report for MOE & stakeholders on results & lessons learned

Outcomes: We distinguish Outcomes from raw Outputs in our Theory of Change to mark the difference between data, deliverables, and phenomena on the one hand, and results and actions that stem from a combination of Outputs on the other. Outcomes may also reflect intangible effects, human factors, or changes in key measurements during the intervention immediately or over time:

  • Access to books
  • Changes in school exam scores
  • Teachers trained & engaged
  • DEC results & feedback
  • Learning on improvements we can make for quality, cost, and scale
  • Publication of results and stories
  • Media coverage and publicity targeted at key stakeholders
  • Benefits for partners that foster program sustainability and scale
  • The community of Digital Essay Competition alumni students, teachers, schools

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